Dislocation

Definition

A dislocation is a separation of two bones where they meet at a joint. Joints are areas where two bones come together.

A dislocated joint is a joint where the bones are no longer in their normal positions.

Considerations

It may be hard to tell a dislocated joint from a broken bone. Both are emergencies. You will need the same first aid treatment.

Most dislocations can be treated in a doctor's office or emergency room. You may be given medicine to make you sleepy and to numb the area. Sometimes, general anesthesia in the operating room is needed.

When treated early, most dislocations do not cause permanent injury.

Once a joint has been dislocated, it is more likely to happen again. Follow-up with an orthopedic surgeon is recommended after a dislocation.

Causes

Dislocations are usually caused by a sudden impact to the joint. This usually occurs following a blow, fall, or other trauma.

Symptoms

A dislocated joint may be:

Nursemaid's elbow is a partial dislocation that is common in toddlers. The main symptom is the child's refusal to use the arm. Nursemaid's elbow can be easily treated in a doctor's office.

First Aid

  1. Call 911 before you begin treating someone who may have a dislocation, especially if the accident that caused the injury may be life-threatening.
  2. If the person has a serious injury, check their airway, breathing, and circulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing, CPR, or bleeding control.
  3. Do not move the person if you think that their head, back, or leg has been injured. Keep the person still. Provide reassurance.
  4. If the skin is broken, take steps to prevent infection. Do not blow on the wound. Rinse the area gently to remove any dirt you can see, but do not scrub or probe. Cover the area with sterile dressings before immobilizing the injured joint (see next step).
  5. Splint or sling the injured joint in the position in which you found it. Do not move the joint. Also immobilize the area above and below the injured area.
  6. Check the person's blood circulation around the injury by pressing firmly on the skin in the affected area. It should turn white, then regain color within a couple of seconds after you stop pressing on it. To reduce the risk of infection, do not do this step if the skin is broken.
  7. Apply ice packs to ease pain and swelling, but do not put ice directly on the skin. Wrap the ice in a clean cloth.
  8. Take steps to prevent shock. Unless there is a head, leg, or back injury, lay the victim flat, elevate their feet about 12 inches, and cover the person with a coat or blanket.

Do Not

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call 911 if the person has:

Prevention

To help prevent injuries in children:

To help prevent dislocations in adults:

For all age groups:


Review Date: 5/15/2014
Reviewed By: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

This information should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. © 1997- 2007 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.