Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Definition

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a brain disorder due to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency.

Causes

Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are different conditions. Both are due to brain damage caused by a lack of vitamin B1.

Lack of vitamin B1 is common in people with alcoholism. It is also common in persons whose bodies do not absorb food properly (malabsorption), as sometimes occurs with a chronic illness or after obesity (bariatric) surgery.

Korsakoff syndrome, or Korsakoff psychosis, tends to develop as Wernicke symptoms go away. Wernicke encephalopathy causes brain damage in lower parts of the brain called the thalamus and hypothalamus. Korsakoff psychosis results from permanent damage to areas of the brain involved with memory.

Symptoms

Symptoms of Wernicke encephalopathy include:

Symptoms of Korsakoff syndrome:

Exams and Tests

Examination of the nervous/muscular system may show damage to many nerve systems:

The person may appear poorly nourished. The following tests are used to check a person's nutrition level:

Liver enzymes may be high in people with a history of long-term alcohol abuse.

Other conditions that may cause vitamin B1 deficiency include:

A brain MRI may show changes in the tissue of the brain. But if Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is suspected, treatment should start immediately. Usually a brain MRI exam is not needed.

Treatment

The goals of treatment are to control symptoms and to prevent the disorder from getting worse. Some people may need to stay in the hospital early in the condition to help control symptoms.

Monitoring and special care may be needed if the person is:

Vitamin B1 may be given by injection into a vein or a muscle, or by mouth. It may improve symptoms of:

Vitamin B1 usually does not improve loss of memory and intellect that occur with Korsakoff psychosis.

Stopping alcohol use can prevent more loss of brain function and damage to nerves. Eating a well-balanced, nourishing diet can help, but it is not a substitute for stopping alcohol use.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Without treatment, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome gets steadily worse, and can be life-threatening. With treatment, it is possible to control symptoms (such as uncoordinated movement and vision difficulties). This disorder can also be slowed or stopped.

Some symptoms, especially the loss of memory and thinking skills, may be permanent. Other disorders related to alcohol use may also occur.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider or go to the emergency room if you have symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or if you have been diagnosed with the condition and your symptoms get worse or return.

Prevention

Not drinking alcohol or drinking in moderation and getting enough nutrition reduce the risk of developing Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. If a heavy drinker will not quit, thiamine supplements and a good diet may reduce the chance of getting this condition, but the risk is not eliminated.


Review Date: 2/24/2014
Reviewed By: Joseph V. Campellone, M.D., Division of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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