Seborrheic dermatitis

Definition

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin condition. It causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form on oily areas such as the scalp, face, or inside the ear. It can occur with or without reddened skin.

Cradle cap is the term used when seborrheic dermatitis affects the scalp of infants.

Causes

The exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. It may be due to a combination of factors:

Risk factors include:

Symptoms

Seborrheic dermatitis can occur on different body areas. It often forms where the skin is oily or greasy. Common areas include the scalp, eyebrows, eyelids, creases of the nose, lips, behind the ears, in the outer ear, and middle of the chest.

In general, symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis include:

Exams and Tests

Diagnosis is based on appearance and location of the skin lesions. Further tests, such as skin biopsy, are rarely needed.

Treatment

Flaking and dryness can be treated with over-the-counter dandruff or medicated shampoos. You can buy these at the drugstore without a prescription. Look for a product that says on the label it treats seborrheic dermatitis. Such products contain ingredients such as salicylic acid, coal tar, zinc, resorcin, ketoconazole, or selenium sulfide. Use the shampoo according to label instructions.

For severe cases, your health care provider will likely prescribe a shampoo, cream, ointment, or lotion containing either a stronger dose of the above medicines, or contain any of the following medicines:

Phototherapy, a medical procedure in which your skin is carefully exposed to ultraviolet light, may be needed.

Sunlight may improve seborrheic dermatitis. In some people, the condition gets better in the summer, especially after outdoor activities.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic (life-long) condition that comes and goes, and it can be controlled with treatment.

Severity of seborrheic dermatitis can be lessened by controlling risk factors and paying careful attention to skin care.

Possible Complications

The condition may result in:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call for an appointment with your provider if your symptoms don't respond to self-care or over-the-counter treatments.

Also call if patches of seborrheic dermatitis drain fluid or pus, form crusts, or become very red or painful.

Prevention

The severity of seborrheic dermatitis can be lessened by controlling the risk factors and by paying careful attention to skin care.


Review Date: 5/2/2017
Reviewed By: David L. Swanson, MD, Vice Chair of Medical Dermatology, Associate Professor of Dermatology, Mayo Medical School, Scottsdale, AZ. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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