Livedo reticularis


Livedo reticularis (LR) is a skin symptom. It refers to a netlike pattern of reddish-blue skin discoloration. The legs are often affected. The condition is linked to swollen blood vessels. It may get worse when the temperature is cold.


As blood flows through the body, arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood back to the heart. The skin discoloration pattern of LR results from veins in the skin that are filled with more blood than normal. This can be caused by any of the following:

There are two forms of LR: primary and secondary. Secondary LR is also known as livedo racemosa.

With primary LR, exposure to cold, tobacco use, or emotional upset can lead the skin discoloration. Women 20 to 50 years old are most affected.

Many different diseases are associated with secondary LR, including:


In most cases, LR affects the legs. Sometimes, the face, trunk, buttocks, hands and feet are involved as well. Usually, there is no pain. However, if blood flow is completely blocked, pain and skin ulcers can develop.

Exams and Tests

Your health care provider will ask about your symptoms.

Blood tests or a skin biopsy may be done to help diagnose any underlying health problem.


For primary LR:

For secondary LR, treatment depends on the underlying disease. For example, if blood clots are the problem, your provider may suggest that you try taking blood thinning drugs.

Outlook (Prognosis)

In many cases, primary LR improves or disappears with age. For LR due to an underlying disease, outlook depends on how well the disease is treated.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if you have LR and think it may be due to an underlying disease.


Primary LR can be prevented by:

Review Date: 4/16/2019
Reviewed By: Michael Lehrer, MD, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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