Cervical polyps

Definition

Cervical polyps are fingerlike growths on the lower part of the uterus that connects with the vagina (cervix).

Causes

The exact cause of cervical polyps is not known. They may occur with:

Cervical polyps are common. They are often found in women over age 40 who have had many children. Polyps are rare in young women who have not started having their period (menstruation).

Most women have only one polyp. Some women have two or three.

Symptoms

Polyps do not always cause symptoms. When symptoms are present, they may include:

Exams and Tests

Your health care provider will perform your pelvic exam. Some smooth, red or purple fingerlike growths will be seen on the cervix.

Most often, the provider will remove the polyp with a gentle tug and send it for testing. Most of the time, the biopsy will show cells that are consistent with a benign polyp. Rarely, there may be abnormal, precancerous, or cancer cells in a polyp.

Treatment

The provider can remove polyps during a simple, outpatient procedure.

The removed polyp tissue should be sent to a lab for further tests.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Most polyps are not cancerous (benign) and are easy to remove. Polyps do not grow back most of the time. Women who have polyps are at risk of growing more polyps.

Possible Complications

There may be bleeding and slight cramping for a few days after removal of a polyp. Some cervical cancers may first appear as a polyp. Certain uterine polyps may be associated with uterine cancer. 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if you have:

Call your provider to schedule regular gynecological exams. Ask how often you should receive a Pap test.

Prevention

See your provider to treat infections as soon as possible.


Review Date: 1/14/2018
Reviewed By: John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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