Complement component 4 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein. This protein is part of the complement system. The complement system is a group of proteins that move freely through your bloodstream. The proteins work with your immune system and play a role in the development of inflammation.
The complement system protects the body from infections, dead cells and from foreign material. Rarely, people may inherit deficiency of some complement proteins. These people are prone to certain infections or autoimmune disorders.
There are nine major complement proteins. They are labeled C1 through C9. This test measures C4.
Blood is drawn from a vein. A vein from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand is most often used.
The procedure is as follows:
In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube called a pipette, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.
No special preparation is needed.
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others may feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.
C3 and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. When the complement system is turned on during inflammation, levels of complement proteins may go down. Complement activity may be measured to determine how severe a disease is or if treatment is working.
A complement test may be used to monitor people with an autoimmune disorder. For example, people with active systemic lupus erythematosus may have lower-than-normal levels of the complement proteins C3 and C4.
Complement activity varies throughout the body. In people with rheumatoid arthritis, complement activity may be normal or higher-than-normal in the blood, but much lower-than-normal in the joint fluid.
Normal ranges for C4 is 15 to 45 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) (0.15 to 0.45 g/L).
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.
Increased complement activity may be seen in:
Decreased complement activity may be seen in:
Risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:
Reviewed By: Gordon A. Starkebaum, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.