A synovial biopsy is the removal of a piece of tissue lining a joint for examination. The tissue is called the synovial membrane.
The test is done in the operating room, often during an arthroscopy. During this procedure:
Follow your health care provider's instructions on how to prepare. This may include not eating and drinking anything for several hours before the procedure.
With the local anesthetic, you will feel a prick and a burning sensation. As the trocar is inserted, there will be some discomfort. If the surgery is performed under regional or general anesthesia, you will not feel the procedure.
Synovial biopsy helps diagnose gout and bacterial infections, or rule out other infections. It can be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, or uncommon infections like tuberculosis.
The synovial membrane structure is normal.
Synovial biopsy may identify the following conditions:
There is a very slight chance of infection and bleeding.
Follow instructions for keeping the wound clean and dry until your provider says it is OK to get it wet.
Reviewed By: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.