High blood pressure - medicine-related
Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by a chemical substance or medicine.
Blood pressure is determined by the:
- Amount of blood the heart pumps
- Condition of the heart valves
- Pulse rate
- Pumping power of the heart
- Size and condition of the arteries
There are several types of high blood pressure:
- Essential hypertension has no cause that can be found.
- Secondary hypertension occurs because of another disorder.
- Drug-induced hypertension is a form of secondary hypertension caused by a response to a chemical substance or medicine.
- Pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Chemical substances and medicines that can cause high blood pressure include:
- Alcohol, amphetamines, ecstasy (MDMA and derivatives), and cocaine
- Angiogenesis inhibitors (including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies)
- Antidepressants (including venlafaxine, bupropion, and desipramine)
- Caffeine (including the caffeine in coffee and energy drinks)
- Ephedra and many other herbal products
- Estrogens (including birth control pills)
- Many over-the-counter medicines such as cough/cold and asthma medicines, particularly when the cough/cold medicine is taken with certain antidepressants, such as tranylcypromine or tricyclics
- Migraine medicines
- Nasal decongestants
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Testosterone and other anabolic steroids and performance-enhancing drugs
Rebound hypertension occurs when blood pressure rises after you stop taking or lower the dose of a drug (typically a medicine to lower high blood pressure).
Many other factors can also affect blood pressure, including:
- Condition of the kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels
- Foods eaten, weight, and other body-related variables, including the amount of added sodium in processed foods
- Levels of various hormones in the body
- Volume of water in the body
Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
This information should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. © 1997- 2007 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.