Hyperaldosteronism is a disorder in which the adrenal gland releases too much of the hormone aldosterone into the blood.
Hyperaldosteronism can be primary or secondary.
Primary hyperaldosteronism is due to a problem of the adrenal glands themselves, which causes them to release too much aldosterone.
In contrast, with secondary hyperaldosteronism, a problem elsewhere in the body causes the adrenal glands to release too much aldosterone. These problems can be with genes, diet, or a medical disorder such as with the heart, liver, kidneys, or high blood pressure.
Most cases of primary hyperaldosteronism are caused by a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the adrenal gland. The condition is most common in people 30 to 50 years old.
Primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism have common symptoms, including:
The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask about your symptoms.
Tests that may be ordered to diagnose hyperaldosteronism include:
A procedure to insert a catheter into the veins of the adrenal glands may need to be done. This helps check which of the two adrenal glands is making too much aldosterone.
Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by an adrenal gland tumor is usually treated with surgery. It can sometimes be treated with medicines. Removing the adrenal tumor may control the symptoms. Even after surgery, some people still have high blood pressure and need to take medicine. But often, the number of medicines or doses can be lowered.
Limiting salt intake and taking medicine may control the symptoms without surgery. Medicines to treat hyperaldosteronism include:
Secondary hyperaldosteronism is treated with medicines (as described above) and limiting salt intake. Surgery is usually not used.
The outlook for primary hyperaldosteronism is good with early diagnosis and treatment.
The outlook for secondary hyperaldosteronism depends on the cause of the condition.
Primary hyperaldosteronism can cause very high blood pressure, which can damage many organs, including the eyes, kidneys, heart and brain.
Erection problems and gynecomastia (enlarged breasts in men) may occur with long-term use of medicines to block the effect of hyperaldosteronism.
Call for an appointment with your provider if you develop symptoms of hyperaldosteronism.
Reviewed By: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.