Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental condition in which a person has long-term patterns of unstable or turbulent emotions. These inner experiences often result in impulsive actions and chaotic relationships with other people.
Cause of BPD is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles.
Risk factors include:
BPD occurs equally in men and women, though women tend to seek treatment more often than men. Symptoms may get better after middle age.
People with BPD lack confidence in how they view themselves and how they are judged by others. As a result, their interests and values can change rapidly. They also tend to view things in terms of extremes, such as either all good or all bad. Their views of other people can change quickly. A person who is looked up to one day may be looked down on the next day. These suddenly shifting feelings often lead to intense and unstable relationships.
Other symptoms of BPD include:
BPD is diagnosed based on a psychological evaluation. The health care provider will consider how long and how severe the person's symptoms are.
Individual talk therapy may successfully treat BPD. Group therapy can sometimes be helpful.
Medicines have less of a role in treating BPD. In some cases, they can improve mood swings and treat depression or other disorders that may occur with this disorder.
Outlook of treatment depends on how severe the condition is and whether the person is willing to accept help. With long-term talk therapy, the person often gradually improves.
Complications may include:
See your provider if you or someone you know has symptoms of borderline personality disorder. It is especially important to seek help right away if you or someone you know is having thoughts of suicide.
Reviewed By: Ryan James Kimmel, MD, Medical Director of Hospital Psychiatry at the University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.