The cervix is the lower end of the womb (uterus). It is at the top of the vagina. It is about 2.5 to 3.5 cm long. The cervical canal passes through the cervix. It allows blood from a menstrual period and a baby (fetus) to pass from the womb into the vagina.
The cervical canal also allows sperm to pass from the vagina into the uterus.
Conditions that affect the cervix include:
A Pap smear is a screening test to check for cancer of the cervix.
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.